The device of the samovar
The ashtray, the pallet, the crane, the handles with holders, the burners, the covers, the cap-plugs. At the same time, the first samovar forms repeated the traditional appearance of Russian copper utensils - brothas, bowls, often used the form of a barrel. In the first period of its existence, the samovar was used only in the upper stratum of Russian society - the nobility. It was due to the fact that tea appeared in Russia only at the beginning of the XVII century, and tea drinking traditions were formed only by the middle of the XVIII century. The forms of samovars of the second half of the 18th century already gravitate towards vertical construction, even in those cases when the master is still under the charm of traditional forms of Russian utensils. The distinctiveness of its design becomes more tangible, some parts of which are already played out decoratively. The surviving samovars of the 1740s and 1760s consisted of two parts: a spherical removable body, inside of which was a soldered conical pipe serving for traction, and a stationary pedestal with a pedestal on which a brazier for coals in the form of a low cylinder with numerous openings Walls. On the body were attached movable swivel handles. These first samovars, both externally and in their structure, were similar to the English so-called "tea urns" or "tea vessels" that served to boil water and existed in England in the 1740s and 1770s. Along with samovars-teapots in the second half of the 18th century, samovars-kitchens were made in the form of deep bowls on legs with a pipe in the center, the distinguishing feature of which were internal partitions that allowed not only boiling water, but also preparing various food for the St. Petersburg samovar. Sometimes a branch intended for boiling water had a tap. Cooked dishes were extracted from the "kitchen" by special scoops. Above, the samovar-kitchen was closed with a common lid, but often each compartment had, in addition, a separate lid. Such samovars were very convenient and long kept in everyday life, especially in provincial cities. Requirements for the samovar as a noble tableware were very high. He must necessarily be on the line and naturally enter the situation of the home. As an object of everyday life, it was connected stylistically with the interior, which, in turn, followed the stylistic changes in architecture, and in the architecture in the 18th century classicism dominated. Its main principles were the orientation toward ancient art, strict clarity of form. At this time, the St. Petersburg samovars were given forms resembling amphoras or antique urns, ovoid in shape with a deepened belt in the middle of the body and a spoonful bottom. The shape of these samovars resonates with the shapes of fountains for wine. At the same time samovars began to decorate.